This glossary attempts to provide unambiguous definitions for terms used in the project.

A

ActiveBPEL
A robust runtime environment that is capable of executing process definitions created for the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) standard. See http://www.activebpel.org for more information.
ADMIRE
Advanced Data Mining and Integration Research for Europe, a vision and novel set of concepts introduced by this project.
Apache-Axis
An implementation of the SOAP ("Simple Object Access Protocol") submission to W3C. See http://ws.apache.org/axis/ for more information.
AURORA
Advanced Models, Applications and Software Systems for High Performance Computing. See http://www.vcpc.univie.ac.at/aurora for more information.
Austrian Grid
Consortium combines Austria's leading researchers in advanced computing technologies with well-recognized partners in grid-dependant application areas. See http://www.austriangrid.at for more information.

B

BSD License
Berkeley Software Distribution License. See http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.html for more information.

C

client
In a service-oriented architecture, a client is a software component or other program unit that makes use of the capabilities offered by a service.
component
One of the computational items involved in DMI processes, namely: data collections, data resources, functions, gateways, libraries, PE, PE instances and (named) types.
CRISP-DM
A description of the six phases of data mining recognised by the CRoss Industry Standard Process for Data Mining, a forum of data mining systems vendors and application developers. This process model is applicable in diverse industry sectors and the six phases are usually undertaken iteratively. See http://www.crisp-dm.org for more information.

D

DAIS-WG
Database Access and Integration Services Working Group. A group at OGF which develops standards for managing structured data resources via web services, See http://forge.gridforum.org/projects/dais-wg for more information.
Data collection
A collection of data, e.g. a file, list of files, a relational table, a set of relational tables, and XML document, an RDF database, etc. that is intended to be used together.
Data integration
Data integration is the process of combining data residing at different sources and providing the user with a unified view of these data. This process emerges in a variety of situations both commercial (when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories). See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Integration for more information.
Data mining
Data mining, also called Knowledge-Discovery in Databases (KDD) is the process of automatically searching large volumes of data for patterns using tools such as classification, association rule mining, clustering, etc. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Mining for more information.
DataMiningGrid
A past EU project. See http://www.datamininggrid.org for more information.
Data resource
A computational service that stores and manages a set of data collections, e.g. a file system or DBMS.
DBE
Dynamic Bit Encoding ­ a new method based on BESS (bit encoded sparse structure) for indexing multidimensional data. Used in data cube construction developed within the GridMiner Project.
DBMiner
A commercial data mining system for interactive mining of multiple-level knowledge in large relational databases. See http://www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/459/han/tutorial/tutorial.html for more information.
DBMS
Database Management System, computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases.
DFDL-WG
Data Format Description Language Working Group. See http://forge.gridforum.org/projects/dfdl-wg for more information.
DIALOGUE
Data Integration Applications: Linking Organizations to Gain Understanding and Experience, a series of international workshops, inter-site visits, and research sharing to realise broad standards and interoperating core software toolkits designed to enable global data access and integration (DAI). See http://dialogue.datagrids.org for more information.
DIDC engineer
A person whose primary interest is delivering better distributed computational systems by taking into account, often dynamically, the properties of the data they are processing.
DISPEL
Data Intensive Systems Process Engineering Language, ADMIRE's canonical form of DMQL.
DiscoveryNet
A U.K. project developing a service-oriented data mining system.
DMG
Data Mining Group. An independent, vendor led group which develops data mining standards, such as the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML). See http://www.dmg.org for more information.
DMI
Data Mining and Integration ­ an integrated approach to specification and implementation of data mining and integration processes introduced by ADMIRE.
DMI expert
A person who specialises in inventing, improving or delivering data mining and data integration capabilities to domain experts and other DMI experts.
DMI Gateway
A computational resource, typically a web service, that will receive requests for DMI-process enactment and will conduct a sequence of steps arranging that enactment or rejecting it.
DMI Portal
A tool designed for a particular group of domain experts that can be used via their browsers; it enables them to choose a DMI-process template, supply its parameters and arrange its enactment.
DMI process
A sequence of computational supported steps required at any phase of the CRISP-DM approach. Generally, such processes are designed using a DMI tool or language by composing DMI-processing elements. They are then sent via a DMI gateway to a DMI-enactment service.
DMI process template
A partially specified DMI process that has been prepared by DMI experts that could fufifil the deployment phase of CRISP-DM. It would be used by a domain expert to submit, e.g. via a DMI portal, a DMI process to a DMI gateway.
DMI processing element (DPE) or processing element (PE)
A primitive or composite software component encapsulating a DMI algorithm and providing for its use in DMI processes. Multiple instances may be used in one process. It has a specified structure of inputs and outputs.
DMI-LQP
DMI language query processor
DMQL
Data Mining Query Language; allows declarative specification of data mining goals.
DMX
Data Mining Extension, a core component of Microsoft's SQL 2005 server data mining platform.
Domain expert
A person whose primary expertise is in a discipline that uses data mining and integration.
DPP
Data Pre-Processing, a phase of the knowledge discovery process.
DQP
A Distributed Query Processing (DQP) system is an example of a data integration component and can potentially provide effective declarative support for service orchestration as well as data integration. See http://www.ogsadai.org.uk/about/ogsa-dqp/ for more information.
D3P Framework
Data statistics, Data understanding, Data Preprocessing ­ a novel framework for data quality management on the Grid developed by the University of Vienna.

E

EGA
Enterprise Grid Alliance, EGA previously sponsored the development of solutions for Grid Computing in the enterprise. See http://www.gridalliance.org/ for more information. EGA merged with GGF to form the OGF.
ESPERONTO
An EU project on Semantic Web technologies. See http://www.esperonto.net for more details.

F

G

GEMSS
An EU project demonstrating how Grid technologies can be used to transform healthcare and enable Europe to lead that transformation. See http://www.ccrl-nece.de/gemss for more information.
Gene Ontology
The Gene Ontology project provides a controlled vocabulary to describe gene and gene product attributes in any organism. See http://www.geneontology.org for more information.
GGF
Global Grid Forum, a community forum that promotes and supports the development, deployment, and implementation of Grid technologies. See http://www.ggf.org for more information. The GGF has been succeeded by the Open Grid Forum (OGF).
gLite
Light Weight Middleware for Grid Computing. See http://glite.web.cern.ch/glite/ for more information.
Globus Alliance
The Globus Alliance is an association dedicated to developing fundamental technologies needed to build grid computing infrastructures. See http://www.globus.org/alliance for more information.
GMA
GridMiner Assistant, an ontology based tool for automated DMI workflow construction at high abstraction level.
GRIA
Grid Resources for Industrial Applications. See http://www.gria.org for more information.
Grid
A system that is concerned with the integration, virtualization, and management of services and resources in a distributed, heterogeneous environment that supports collections of users and resources (virtual organizations) across traditional administrative and organizational domains (real organisations).
Grid Computing
Grid Computing is an emerging computing model that treats all resources as a collection of manageable entities with common interfaces to such functionality as lifetime management, discoverable properties and accessibility via open protocols. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_Computing for more information.
GridMiner
Grid-based data-mining infrastructure including software services for sequential, parallel and distributed data and text mining, On-Line Analytical Processing, data integration on mediator/wrapper principles, data quality monitoring and improving based on advanced data statistics, and visualisation of the results of data analysis and surveying tasks. See http://www.gridminer.org for more information.
Grid Service
The formal definition of this term is deprecated. In general use, a Grid service is a Web service that is designed to operate in a Grid environment, and meets the requirements of the Grid(s) in which it participates.
Grimoires
A semantic registry extending the capabilities of the UDDI standard by enabling the registration of non-web-service 'invocable activities' (e.g. scripts and java methods) and the attachment of information (annotations).

H

I

Information Integrator
See http://www.ibm.com/software/data/integration/ for more information.
InteliGrid
See http://www.inteligrid.org/ for more information.
ISB
Infrastructure Service Bus
iSpider
In Silico Proteome Integrated Data Environment Resource. See http://www.ispider.manchester.ac.uk/ for more information.

J

JSDL
Job Submission Description Language. See http://www.gridforum.org/documents/GFD.56.pdf for more information.

K

KDD
Knowledge Discovery in Databases. See Data Mining
Kepler
Open-source scientific workflow system that allows scientists to design scientific workflows and execute them efficiently using emerging Grid-based approaches to distributed computation. See http://kepler-project.org/ for more information.
Knowledge Web
A 4 year Network of Excellence project funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Programme. See http://knowledgeweb.semanticweb.org for more information.
K-WF Grid
The main objective of this project is to enable the knowledge-based support of workflow construction and execution in a Grid computing environment. See http://www.kwfgrid.eu/ for more information.

L

library
A named collection of PE, functions and types designed to work well together to perform a coherent set of DMI tasks.

M

metadata
Data that describes data. Metadata may include references to schemas, provenance, and information quality.
METEOR-S
A project at the University of Georgia, U.S.A. addressing Semantic Web technologies. See http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/meteor-s/ for more information.
MKBEEM
The MKBEEM project (Multilingual Knowledge Based European Electronic Marketplace) develops a mediation system which adapts the language and the trading conditions of an Internet sales point according to its international customership. See http://mkbeem.elibel.tm.fr for more details.
mock objects
A technique for improving the design of code within test-driven development. See http://www.mockobjects.com for more information.
myGrid
A UK eScience project. See http://www.mygrid.org.uk for more information.

N

NeOn
The aim of the NeOn project is to create the service-oriented, open infrastructure, and associated methodology, to support the development life-cycle of such a new generation of semantic applications. See http://www.neon-project.org for more information.
NextGRID
See http://www.nextgrid.org/ for more information.

O

OASIS
Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards. See http://www.oasis-open.org/ for more information.
ODESGS
Is an environment for the annotation of pre-existing Grid Services and development of new complex Semantic Grid Services. See http://www.ontogrid.net/ontogrid/r_odesgs.jsp for more information.
OGF
Open Grid Forum. See http://www.ogf.org for more information.
OGSA
Open Grid Services Architecture.
OGSA-BES WG
OGSA Basic Execution Services Working Group. See https://forge.gridforum.org/projects/ogsa-bes-wg/ for more information.
OGSA-ByteIO
The objective of the GGF OGSA ByteIO working group is to define a minimal Web Service interface for providing "POSIX-like" file functionality.
OGSA-DAI
Open Grid Service Architecture Data Access and Integration. The aim of the OGSA-DAI project is to develop middleware to assist with access and integration of data from separate sources via the Grid. See http://www.ogsadai.org.uk/ for more information.
OGSA-Data WG
The OGSA Data WG is producing a data architecture as part of the larger OGSA effort. This data architecture describes the data services in the OGSA architecture and explains how they can be orchestrated to implement a range of data-oriented capabilities. See https://forge.gridforum.org/sf/projects/ogsa-d-wg for more information.
OGSA Secure Channel
See http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.99.pdf for more information.
OGSA WS-RF Basic Profile
See http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.72.pdf for more information.
OGSA-DQP
See DQP.
OLAP
On-Line Analytical Processing, is an approach to quickly providing answers to analytical queries that are dimensional in nature. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLAP for more information.
OLE DB for Data Mining
Object Linking and Embedding Database. Defines a data mining API to Microsoft's OLE DB environment and defines the basis of data mining as the data mining model virtual object. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLE_DB for more information.
OMII-UK
The Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute UK aim to provide supported and sustainable software for the UK e-Science community and its collaborators. See http://www.omii.ac.uk/ for more information.
OntoGrid
A project aiming to producing the technological infrastructure for the rapid prototyping and development of knowledge-intensive distributed open services for the Semantic Grid. See http://www.ontogrid.eu for more information.
OWL
Web Ontology Language. See http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL for more information.
OWL-S
Semantic Markup for Web Services. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/OWL-S for more information.
Oyster
A java-based system, which assists researchers in managing, searching and sharing ontology metadata in a peer-to-peer network. See http://oyster.ontoware.org/ for more information.

P

pattern
A commonly recurring structure detectable after abstraction that occurs in DMI processes, these may receive special treatment.
PE instance
An instance of a primitive or composite PE that may be used, i.e. executed, during a DMI-process enactment.
PMML
Predictive Model Markup Language is an XML-based language which provides a way for applications to define statistical and data mining models and to share models between PMML compliant applications. See http://www.dmg.org for more information.

Q

QoS
Quality of Service. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_of_Service for more information.

R

R
A free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. See http://www.r-project.org for more information.
RDF
Resource Description Framework, a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. See http://www.w3.org/RDF/ for more information.
Reference Model WG
Reference Model Working Group. See http://www.ogf.org/gf/group_info/view.php?group=rm-wg for more information.
Registry
A service that stores descriptions of DMI components. These descriptions include information used by humans and information used by DMI tools and enactment services.
Repository
A service that accepts DMI process definitions, preserves them and supports their shared use.
Resource
In OGSA, a resource is an entity that is useful in a Grid environment. The term usually encompasses entities that are pooled (e.g. hosts, software licenses, IP addresses, etc.) or that provide a given capacity (e.g. disks, networks, memory, databases). However, entities such as processes, print jobs, database query results and virtual organizations may also be represented and handled as resources.See http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/NOTE-ws-arch-20040211/#resource for more information.
RGAB
RDF(S) Grid Access Bridge ­ a component of the OntoGrid project platform.

S

SAS Enterprise Miner
A commercial data mining system. See http://www.sas.com/technologies/analytics/datamining/miner/ for m ore information.
SAWSDL
Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema. See http://www.w3.org/TR/sawsdl for more information.
SEEK
The Science Environment for Ecological Knowledge (SEEK) is a system designed to facilitate not only data acquisition and archiving, but integrating, transforming, analyzing, and synthesizing ecological and biodiversity data that was previously intractable. See http://seek.ecoinformatics.org/ for more information.
SEEMP
Single European Employment Market Place. EU project enhancing the already provided e-Employment services by developing a highly advanced, ontology-based, peer-to-peer (P2P) based interoperability infrastructure that will be based on Service Oriented Architecture and will offer access to semantically enriched employment services.
Semantic annotation
Used for providing formal descriptions of the entities involved in the DMI processes.
Semantic Discovery
Mechanisms aiming to improving the completeness and accuracy of search techniques using semantic technologies.
Semantic Grid
Is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well-defined meaning through machine-processable descriptions which maximize the potential for sharing and reuse. See http://www.semanticgrid.org for more information.
Semantic Matching
Exploits the properties of formal descriptions for solving a particular problem associated to the usage of the entities involved in the DMI processes.
Semantic mediation
Techniques aiming to hide a logical model behind a conceptual model (ontology) to which it is explicitly mapped.
Semantic registries
Components that provide mechanisms for publishing semantic annotated information.
Semantic Web
An evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be understood, interpreted and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web for more information.
Service Oriented Architecture
This term is increasingly used to refer to an architectural style of building reliable distributed systems that deliver functionality as services, with the additional emphasis on loose coupling between interacting services. An SOA can be based on Web services (which provide basic interoperability), but it may use other technologies instead.
session
A dynamically created service that allows access to information about the enactment of a DMI process.
SIMDAT
EU project providing the basis for a cost-effective, global information system for meteorology and the environment. See http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/simdat.html for more information.
S-OGSA
Semantic-OGSA. See http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~ocorcho/InvitedTalks/L3S_October2006.html for more information.
SPARQL
Query Language for RDF. See http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query for more information.
streaming
The underlying mechanism used for composing DMI-processing elements to generate composite DPE, DMI-process templates and DMI-processes. A stream takes a sequence of values of a specfified type from an output of one DPE to an input of another DPE preserving order. It may move data with any granularity and may provide buffering.
SWSL
Semantic Web Services Language. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWSF-SWSL/ for more information.
SWSO
Semantic Web Services Ontology. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWSF-SWSO for more information.

T

Taverna
Aims to provide a language and software tools to facilitate easy use of workflow and distributed compute technology within the eScience community. See http://taverna.sourceforge.net/ for more information.
Triana
An open source problem solving environment developed at Cardiff University that combines an intuitive visual interface with powerful data analysis tools. See http://www.trianacode.org/ for more information.
type
A formal description of the structure of a value that enables a limited set of operations on the value. ADMIRE deals simultaneously with three type systems: structural types defining the representation of DMI-process definitions, DMI types that describe values that are used in data mining and application domain types that are used in a specfic application domain.

U

UDDI
See http://www.uddi.org for more information.
UNIGrids
See http://www.unigrids.org for more information.

V

W

Watson
A gateway registry for selecting, retrieving and exploring semantic data and ontologies.
Web Service
A software system designed to support interoperable machine- or application-oriented interaction over a network. A Web service has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards.
WEEP
Workflow Enactment Engine Project is an easy to use and manage workflow enactment service for WS-I/WS-RF services. See http://weep.gridminer.org for more information.
Wrapper
Is a design pattern where a piece of code allows classes to work together that normally could not because of incompatible interfaces. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrapper for more information.
WS-BPEL
Web Services Business Process Execution Language. See http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=wsbpel for more information.
WS-DAI
A specification defining core operations required to access structured data resources in a Grid environment using web services. See http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.74.pdf
WS-DAIOnt-RDF
A framework for defining ontology access service interfaces using the WS-DAI vocabulary and for defining the set of messages, properties and behaviors needed to provide ontology access to ontologies implemented in RDF(S)
WS-DAIR
A rendering of the WS-DAI specification for accessing relational data resources. See http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.76.pdf
WS-DAIX
A rendering of the WS-DAI specification for accessing XML data resources. See http://www.ogf.org/documents/GFD.75.pdf
WSDL
Web Services Description Language. See http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl for more information.
WSDL-S
Web Service Semantics. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSDL-S for more information.
WSML
Web Service Modeling Language. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSML for more inforamtion.
WSMO
Web Service Modeling Ontology. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSMO for more information.
WSMX
Web Service Execution Environment. See http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSMX for more information.
WS-N
Web Services Notification. See http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=wsn for more information.
WS-Naming WG
The objective of this working group is to work on two specifications (RNS and WS-NR) to realize a three level name space for OGSA and to produce WS-Naming naming specification based on WS-Addressing. Thus, both RNS and WS-Naming must be combinable with OGSA Basic Profile. See http://forge.gridforum.org/projects/ogsa-naming-wg for more information.
WS-RF
Web Services Resource Framework. See http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=wsrf for more information.

X

XQuery
A query language able to handle and join in a single query data sources exposing XML, relational or legacy data formats. See http://www.w3.org/TR/xquery for more information.

Y

Z